Objectives This study aims to evaluate the relationship between phoneme recognition skills and language development skills in pediatric auditory brainstem implant (ABI) users. It further intends to identify the delays and problems that may occur in the phoneme recognition skills of children with ABI and shed light on rehabilitation programs. Methods Our study included 20 children using ABI and another 20 using cochlear implants (CI). They were aged between 6 and 8 years 11 months. The participants exhibited homogenous demographic and audiological characteristics. The Turkish version of the Test of Language Development-Primary: Fourth Edition (TOLDP:4) was used to evaluate the language development skills, and the Turkish version of the Phoneme Recognition Test (PRT) was applied to assess the phoneme recognition skills. Results There was a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) in the PRT values as well as in the language development skills between the children with ABI and those with CI. It was observed that the values of the children with CI were significantly higher than those of children with ABI. Conclusion Although children with ABI were not able to match the skills of their peers with CI, their language development and communication skills improved. It is believed that this study will contribute to the literature by demonstrating that the use of ABI improves phoneme recognition skills in children who are not eligible for CI or who do not adequately benefit from CI.