Intraocular Metastases


OCULAR TUMORS, vol.7, pp.45-52, 2016 (SCI-Expanded) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 7
  • Publication Date: 2016
  • Doi Number: 10.1159/000442223
  • Journal Name: OCULAR TUMORS
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED)
  • Page Numbers: pp.45-52
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes


Metastatic intraocular tumors are important for ophthalmologists to identify, as these tumors may be the first sign of a systemic cancer or imply recurrence of the disease, most often at an advanced stage. Breast and lung carcinomas are the two most common neoplasms that metastasize to intraocular structures, and the choroid is the most frequent site at which these tumors are deposited. Lateral parts of the retro-equatorial choroid accommodate the majority of metastatic lesions. Tumors are unilateral in 76% of patients and unifocal in 58% of eyes. Patients harboring metastatic intraocular tumors usually present with decreased visual acuity and an orange-yellow choroidal mass associated with subretinal fluid. Currently available ancillary diagnostic procedures include fundus auto-fluorescence, ultrasonography, optical coherence tomography, fluorescein and indocyanine green angiographies, magnetic resonance imaging studies and various types of intraocular biopsy in highly selected cases. If nonocular metastases are also present, systemic chemotherapy is indicated. However, an initially successful outcome of chemotherapy may not be sustained. Local therapies include external beam radiotherapy, radioactive plaque brachytherapy, photodynamic therapy and transpupillary thermotherapy. In metastatic breast cancer, aromatase inhibitors, tamoxifen and trastuzumab have been proven effective. The role of anti-angiogenic agents is still unclear. The overall survival of patients diagnosed with intraocular metastasis is poor. (C) 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel