We compared the effects of subchronic clozapine and haloperidol administration on the expression of SNAP-25 and synaptophysin in an animal model of schizophrenia based on the glutamatergic hypothesis. Mice were first treated with a non-competitive NMDA antagonist MK-801 (0.3 mg/kg/day) or saline for 5 days, and then clozapine (5 mg/kg/day), haloperidol (1 mg/kg/day) or saline was administered for two weeks. The locomotion test, as a behavioral model of the positive symptoms of schizophrenia, was applied after MK-801/saline administration on day 6 for acute effects and after antipsychotic/saline administration on day 19 for enduring effects on mice activity. Memory function was assessed by the Novel Object Recognition (NOR) test, one day after the last day of antipsychotic/saline administration (day 20). Western Blotting technique was used to determine SNAP-25 and synaptophysin expressions in the hippocampus and frontal cortex. Both antipsychotics reversed the enhanced locomotion effects of MK-801. MK-801 and haloperidol decreased recognition memory performance. On the other hand, clozapine did not compromise memory. It also did not reverse the negative effects of MK-801 on memory performance. MK-801 did not change SNAP-25 and synaptophysin expressions in the hippocampus and frontal cortex. Clozapine increased hippocampal SNAP-25, decreased hippocampal synaptophysin expression, whereas frontal SNAP-25 and synaptophysin expressions remained unchanged. Haloperidol had no effects on levels of SNAP-25 and synaptophysin in the frontal cortex and hippocampus. These findings support the idea that the differential effects of clozapine might be related to its plastic effects and synaptic reorganization of the hippocampus. (c) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.