Mixed-mode fracture problems of orthotropic functionally graded materials (FGMs) are examined under mechanical and thermal loading conditions. In the case of mechanical loading, an embedded crack in an orthotropic FGM layer is considered. The crack is assumed to be loaded by arbitrary normal and shear tractions that are applied to its surfaces. An analytical solution based on the singular integral equations and a numerical approach based on the enriched finite elements are developed to evaluate the mixed-mode stress intensity factors and the energy release rate under the given mechanical loading conditions. The use of this dual approach methodology allowed the verifications of both methods leading to a highly accurate numerical predictive capability to assess the effects of material orthotropy and nonhomogeneity constants on the crack tip parameters. In the case of thermal loading, the response of periodic cracks in an orthotropic FGM layer subjected to transient thermal stresses is examined by means of the developed enriched finite element method. The results presented for the thermally loaded layer illustrate the influences of the material property gradation profiles and crack periodicity on the transient fracture mechanics parameters. (C) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.