Fabad Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol.42, no.3, pp.207-219, 2017 (Scopus)
Bisphenols are chemical compounds that contain two hydroxyphenyl functional groups. They are named according to their reactant groups. For instance, bisphenol A (BPA) has acetone as a reactant group, while bisphenol F (BPF) has a formaldehyde reactant group and bisphenol S (BPS) includes a sulfur trioxide reactant group. These substances are used to harden polycarbonate. BPA is a key monomer in production of epoxy resins. Due to its high production volumes and widespread use, BPA is the mostly studied bisphenol analogue and it is a well-known endocrine disruptor. Due to its toxic and endocrine disrupting effects, other bisphenol analogues are now preferred in industry, particularly BPF and BPS. However, these analogues also possess health risks and their toxicity mechanisms were not well-elucidated. Compared to BPA, there are limited number of studies that show the toxicity of these two analogues. In this review, we will mainly focus on the toxic effects of BPF and BPS. Their uses, biotransformation and physiological effects will be discussed. Futhermore, the cytotoxic and endocrine disrupting effects of these chemicals will be explained by mentioning the results of the in vitro and in vivo studies and by comparing to BPA.