ISCIENCE, vol.17, pp.347-370, 2019 (SCI-Expanded)
Theoretically, by controlling neural membrane potential (V-m) in vivo, motion, sensation, and behavior can be controlled. Until now, there was no available technique that can increase or decrease ion concentration in vivo in real time to change neural membrane potential. We introduce a method that we coin electro-ionic modulation (EIM), wherein ionic concentration around a nerve can be controlled in real time and in vivo. We used an interface to regulate the Ca2+ ion concentration around the sciatic nerve of a frog and thus achieved stimulation and blocking with higher resolution and lower current compared with electrical stimulation. As EIM achieves higher controllability of V-m, it has potential to replace conventional methods used for the treatment of neurological disorders and may bring a new perspective to neuromodulation techniques.