The elderly population is more prone to acute kidney injury (AKI) than younger populations. Older patients have less renal reserve because of reduced glomerular filtration rates due to anatomic/functional changes, and concomitant diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, atherosclerosis, heart failure, ischemic renal disease, and obstructive uropathy. The risk of AKI may also increase as a result of aggressive diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, which include medical agents, radiology, and surgical intervention. AKI in the elderly has a multifactorial physiopathology due to different etiologies. Studies that have specifically compared prognosis of AKI in elderly versus young over the recent years suggest that age is a predictor of long-term outcome. In most cases, the treatment of AKI is similar for all age groups. The majority of critically ill patients with AKI will eventually need renal replacement therapy (RRT). The influence of RRT on renal outcome remains a subject of intense investigation and debate. Avoiding situations that could damage the kidney is an important strategy to prevent AKI development in the elderly, besides medical and interventional therapeutics.