The Frequency and Related Factors of Non-Tuberculosis Mycobacteria Infections among Patients with Cystic Fibrosis.


Ademhan Tural D., Emiralioglu N. , Ozsezen B., Saribas Z., Ozcan N., Alp A., ...More

Pediatrics international : official journal of the Japan Pediatric Society, 2021 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume:
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.1111/ped.14688
  • Title of Journal : Pediatrics international : official journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
  • Keywords: Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine, cystic fibrosis, lung disease, non-tuberculosis mycobacteria, treatment, LUNG-DISEASE, EPIDEMIOLOGY, FOUNDATION, INDIVIDUALS, STATEMENT, DIAGNOSIS

Abstract

Background Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) can cause chronic lung infection particularly in patients who have structural lung disease such as cystic fibrosis (CF). We evaluated the incidence and management of NTM infections in patients with CF in our center. Methods A retrospective cohort study was carried out on CF patients having at least one positive NTM isolate between 2012 and 2020. Results Ten patients (2.1%) had at least one positive NTM culture from respiratory samples. All of them were vaccinated with Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine, which is in the national vaccination program in our country. Eight patients had the Mycobacterium abscessus complex, one had Mycobacterium avium, and one had Mycobacterium szulgai growth in their respiratory samples. Three patients had transient NTM infection, two had persistent, and five had active NTM infection (NTM pulmonary disease). Patients with NTM pulmonary disease received antibiogram-directed antimycobacterial therapy. In patients with NTM pulmonary disease, the median ppFEV1 and BMI decreased by 17% and 1%, respectively, at the time of the first NTM isolation when compared with the values one year before the first NTM isolation. Culture conversion was not seen in any patient infected with Mycobacteriunm abscessus complex. Conclusions The NTM infection incidence is lower in our country than in those countries where the BCG vaccine is not routinely applied. The BCG vaccine may be a protective factor for NTM infection. Further studies are needed about the prevalence of NTM infections, facilitating and protective factors, and appropriate management of NTM infections in patients with CF.