This study aimed to determine the quality of life of patients with chronic kidney disease who were receiving dialysis treatment. It also aimed to identify the factors affecting the quality of life of these patients. The independent variables analyzed were: patients' sociodemographic characteristics, organizational characteristics, adherence to treatment, patient-physician relationship, and patient activation level. The sample consisted of 328 patients with chronic kidney disease who received services from dialysis units of two university hospitals and two private dialysis centers. Data analysis was performed through multivariate regression. Results showed that receiving treatment from a hospital-based dialysis unit may have a positive effect in patients' quality of life; and patient-physician relationship, patient activity, and adherence to treatment may positively affect quality of life. Thus, planning of health service delivery that focus on improving the quality of life of patients who are more active by allowing them to establish positive relationships with their physicians and to have a better adherence to treatment should be adopted. These findings may provide health managers, health professionals, and individual patients with evidence-based information about treatment management and health service planning processes related to chronic kidney disease.