Activated Carbon Production from Hazelnut Shells Using Phosphoric Acid and Boron

Kumas C., Sayin Z. E.

16th International Symposium on Environmental Issues and Waste Management in Energy and Mineral Production (SWEMP) / International Symposium on Computer Applications (CAMI), İstanbul, Turkey, 5 - 07 October 2016 identifier

  • Publication Type: Conference Paper / Full Text
  • Volume:
  • City: İstanbul
  • Country: Turkey
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes


Activated carbon can be defined as carbonaceous material having high porosity and internal surface area and cannot be characterized by any distinctive chemical formula. Depending on the usage, activated carbons are available as powder, granulated, pressed sticks in various size and shapes. In this study, activated carbons were prepared from hazelnut shell which taken from Eastern Blacksea region. Activated carbons were prepared by chemical activation method with phosphoric acid and boric acid (phosphoric acid activation, phosphoric acid + boric acid activation and activated carbon + boric acid activation). In order to find the optimum activated carbon, different H3PO4 (35 %, 50 % and 65 %) and H3BO3 (3%, 5% and 10%) concentration, activation temperature (400, 500, 600, 700, 800 degrees C) and carbonization time (30, 60 and 120 minute) was employed. The produced activated carbon samples, moisture content, ash content, carbon content, volatile matter content, carbonization yield, iodine number, hardness, surface area, mercury porosimetry, SEM and adsorption capacity were studied to determine the optimum sample. The carbonization yield was observed that when the decrease in carbonization yield due to the temperature increases. However, the carbonization yield of the acid concentration has been found to be not effective as carbonization temperature. When examining the effect on carbonization yield phosphoric acid + boric acid activation, due to increased concentration of boric acid that has a negative impact in carbonization yield and has been found to adversely affect the hardness of the boric acid. As a result of studies, optimum activated carbon was obtained at 35 % phosphoric acid concentration, 500 degrees C carbonization temperature and 60 minute carbonization time. The obtained iodine number of activated carbon 583.32 mg/I-2, surface area 1071.29 m(2)/g was determined. Also made hardness and adsorption tests produced results of high hardness of the active carbon (90 %) and was found to have high adsorption capacity. Due to having low moisture and ash content with high surface area, hardness, of hazelnut shell is considered to be a potential raw material for producing activated carbon.