CARDIOLOGY IN THE YOUNG, vol.32, no.1, pp.88-93, 2022 (SCI-Expanded)
Objective: There are a few number of case reports and small-scale case series reporting dilated cardiomyopathy due to vitamin D-deficient rickets. The present study evaluates the clinical, biochemical, and echocardiographic features of neonates with vitamin D deficiency. Patients and methods: In this prospective single-arm observational study, echocardiographic evaluation was performed on all patients before vitamin D3 and calcium replacement. Following remission of biochemical features of vitamin D deficiency, control echocardiography was performed. Biochemical and echocardiographic characteristics of the present cohort were compared with those of 27 previously published cases with dilated cardiomyopathy due to vitamin D deficiency. Results: The study included 148 cases (95 males). In the echocardiographic evaluation, none of the patients had dilated cardiomyopathy. All of the mothers were also vitamin D deficient and treated accordingly. Comparison of patients with normocalcaemia and hypocalcaemia at presentation revealed no statistically significant difference between the ejection fraction and shortening fraction, while left ventricle end-diastolic diameter and left ventricle end-systolic diameter were higher in patients with hypocalcaemia. Previously published historical cases were older and had more severe biochemical features of vitamin D deficiency. Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, in this first and largest cohort of neonates with vitamin D deficiency, we did not detect dilated cardiomyopathy. Early recognition and detection before developing actual rickets and preventing prolonged hypocalcaemia are critically important to alleviate cardiac complications.