Large DNA rearrangements account for about 8% of disease mutations and are more common in duplicated genomic regions, where they are difficult to detect. Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease ( ADPKD) is caused by mutations in either PKD1 or PKD2. PKD1 is located in an intrachromosomally duplicated region. A tuberous sclerosis gene, TSC2, lies immediately adjacent to PKD1 and large deletions can result in the PKD1/TSC2 contiguous gene deletion syndrome. To rapidly identify large rearrangements, a multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification assay was developed employing base-pair differences between PKD1 and the six pseudogenes to generate PKD1-specific probes. All changes in a set of 25 previously defined deletions in PKD1, PKD2 and PKD1/TSC2 were detected by this assay and we also found 14 new mutations at these loci. About 4% of the ADPKD patients in the CRISP study were found to have gross rearrangements, and these accounted for about a third of base-pair mutation negative families. Sensitivity of the assay showed that about 40% of PKD1/TSC contiguous gene deletion syndrome families contained mosaic cases. Characterization of a family found to be mosaic for a PKD1 deletion is discussed here to illustrate family risk and donor selection considerations. Our assay improves detection levels and the reliability of molecular testing of patients with ADPKD.