The purpose of this study was to investigate shear bond strength (SBS) between a light-curing nano-ionomer restorative and enamel or dentin after acid etching, after erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er:YAG) laser etching, or after combined treatment. Forty third molars were selected, the crowns were sectioned, and 80 tooth slabs were obtained. The specimens were assigned to two groups, which were divided into four subgroups(n = 10). Group 1 [enamel (e)], treated with 37% phosphoric acid (A) + Ketac nano-primer (K); group 2 [dentin (d)], (A) + (K); group 3(e), Er:YAG laser etching (L) + (A) + (K); group 4(d), (L) + (A) + (K); group 5(e), (L) + (K); group 6(d), (L) + (K); group 7(e), (K); group 8(d), (K). The SBS of the specimens was measured with a universal test machine (1 mm/min). Data were analyzed by independent samples t-test, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and a post-hoc Duncan test (p < 0.05). No difference was determined between groups 3 and 5 (p > 0.05). Group 7 exhibited higher SBS values than those of groups 3 and 5 (p < 0.05). Group 1 showed higher SBSs than those of groups 3, 5 and 7 (p < 0.05). There was no significant difference between groups 4 and 6 (p > 0.05). No difference was observed between groups 2 and 4 (p > 0.05). However, group 2 presented higher SBSs than did group 6 (p < 0.05). Group 8 exhibited the highest SBS values when compared with groups 2, 4 and 6 (p < 0.05). Er:YAG laser adversely affected the adhesion of the light-curing nano-ionomer restorative to both enamel and dentin.