Kinematic and EMG activities during front and back squat variations in maximum loads


YAVUZ H. U. , Erdag D., AMCA A. M. , ARITAN S.

JOURNAL OF SPORTS SCIENCES, vol.33, no.10, pp.1058-1066, 2015 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 33 Issue: 10
  • Publication Date: 2015
  • Doi Number: 10.1080/02640414.2014.984240
  • Title of Journal : JOURNAL OF SPORTS SCIENCES
  • Page Numbers: pp.1058-1066
  • Keywords: electromyography, strength training, biomechanics, maximal loading, two-dimensional, CLOSED KINETIC CHAIN, MUSCLE-ACTIVITY, BIOMECHANICAL ANALYSIS, ACTIVATION, PATTERNS, FORCE, KNEE, BAR

Abstract

The aim of this study was to compare the musculature activity and kinematics of knee and hip joints during front and back squat with maximal loading. Two-dimensional kinematical data were collected and electromyographic activities of vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, rectus femoris, semitendinosus, biceps femoris, gluteus maximus and erector spinae were measured while participants (n=12, 21.2 +/- 1.9years old) were completing front and back squat exercises with maximum loading. Paired sample t-test was used for comparisons between two techniques. Results showed that the electromyographic activity of vastus medialis was found to be greater in the front squat compared to the back squat during the ascending phase (P<0.05, d=0.62; 95% CI, -15.0/-4.17) and the whole manoeuvre (P<0.05, d=0.41; 95% CI, -12.8/-0.43), while semitendinosus (P<0.05, d=-0.79; 95% CI, 0.62/20.59) electromyographic activity was greater in the back squat during the ascending phase. Compared to the front squat version, back squat exhibited significantly greater trunk lean, with no differences occurring in the knee joint kinematics throughout the movement. Results may suggest that the front squat may be preferred to the back squat for knee extensor development and for preventing possible lumbar injuries during maximum loading.

The aim of this study was to compare the musculature activity and kinematics of knee and hip joints during front and back squat with maximal loading. Two-dimensional kinematical data were collected and electromyographic activities of vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, rectus femoris, semitendinosus, biceps femoris, gluteus maximus and erector spinae were measured while participants (n=12, 21.2 +/- 1.9years old) were completing front and back squat exercises with maximum loading. Paired sample t-test was used for comparisons between two techniques. Results showed that the electromyographic activity of vastus medialis was found to be greater in the front squat compared to the back squat during the ascending phase (P<0.05, d=0.62; 95% CI, -15.0/-4.17) and the whole manoeuvre (P<0.05, d=0.41; 95% CI, -12.8/-0.43), while semitendinosus (P<0.05, d=-0.79; 95% CI, 0.62/20.59) electromyographic activity was greater in the back squat during the ascending phase. Compared to the front squat version, back squat exhibited significantly greater trunk lean, with no differences occurring in the knee joint kinematics throughout the movement. Results may suggest that the front squat may be preferred to the back squat for knee extensor development and for preventing possible lumbar injuries during maximum loading.