JOURNAL OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS, vol.267, pp.1-8, 2014 (SCI-Expanded)
In this paper, a batch system was applied to study the adsorption behavior of congo red (CR) on raw and modified clinoptilolites. Raw clinoptilolite (Raw-CL) was treated with Fe(NO3)(3) in ethanol to obtain its iron-grafted form (Fe-CL). Adsorbents were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), thermogravimetric/differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA), zeta-potential measurement and N-2 gas adsorption-desorption techniques. Effects of the experimental parameters (initial pH, dye concentration, temperature and adsorption time) were investigated to find optimum conditions that result in highest adsorption capacity for CR removal. The obtained results suggest that the solution pH appears to be a key factor of the CR adsorption process. The maximum dye adsorption was achieved with Fe-CL adsorbent at pH similar to 6.3 and the corresponding adsorption capacity was found to be 36.7 mg/g, which is higher than that of its raw counterpart (16.9 mg/g). A significant decrease in CR removal was given by Fe-CL between pH 7 and 11 opposite to Raw-CL which has nearly constant q(e) in the same pH range. The Fe3+-grafting increased the zeta potential of raw clinoptilolite, leading to a higher adsorption capacity compared to that of unfunctionalized adsorbent. Also, temperature change was found to have a significant effect on the adsorption process. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.