Role of serostatus in pediatric neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders: A nationwide multicentric study

Solmaz I., ÖNCEL İ. H., Konuşkan B., Erol I., Orgun L. T., Yılmaz Ü., ...More

Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders, vol.77, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 77
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.msard.2023.104847
  • Journal Name: Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, EMBASE, MEDLINE
  • Keywords: Aquaporin 4, Demyelinating, Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein, Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders, Pediatric
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes


Background: Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) are immune-mediated inflammatory disorders of the central nervous system (CNS) mostly presenting as optic neuritis and acute myelitis. NMOSD can be associated with seropositivity for aquaporin 4 antibody (AQP4 IgG), myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody (MOG IgG), or can be seronegative for both. In this study, we retrospectively examined our seropositive and seronegative pediatric NMOSD patients. Method: Data were collected from all participating centres nationwide. Patients diagnosed with NMOSD were divided into three subgroups according to serology: AQP4 IgG NMOSD, MOG IgG NMOSD, and double seronegative (DN) NMOSD. Patients with at least six months of follow-up were compared statistically. Results: The study included 45 patients, 29 female and 16 male (ratio:1.8), mean age 15.16 ± 4.93 (range 5.5–27) years. Age at onset, clinical manifestations, and cerebrospinal fluid findings were similar between AQP4 IgG NMOSD (n = 17), MOG IgG NMOSD (n = 10), and DN NMOSD (n = 18) groups. A polyphasic course was more frequent in the AQP4 IgG and MOG IgG NMOSD groups than DN NMOSD (p = 0.007). The annualized relapse rate and rate of disability were similar between groups. Most common types of disability were related to optic pathway and spinal cord involvement. Rituximab in AQP4 IgG NMOSD, intravenous immunoglobulin in MOG IgG NMOSD, and azathioprine in DN NMOSD were usually preferred for maintenance treatment. Conclusion: In our series with a considerable number of double seronegatives, the three major serological groups of NMOSD were indistinguishable based on clinical and laboratory findings at initial presentation. Their outcome is similar in terms of disability, but seropositive patients should be more closely followed-up for relapses.