New Chromosome Numbers and Karyotype Analysis of Tordylium (Apiaceae) Species with Emphasis on Their Systematics and Evolutionary Significance

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Gömürgen A. N. , Koca A. , Özmen Baysal E. , Doğan C. , Altınözlü H.

Hacettepe Journal of Biology and Chemistry, vol.50, no.2, pp.99-111, 2022 (National Refreed University Journal)

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 50 Issue: 2
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.15671/hjbc.898159
  • Title of Journal : Hacettepe Journal of Biology and Chemistry
  • Page Numbers: pp.99-111



In Turkey, there are eighteen Tordylium (Apiaceae) species out of twenty in the worldwide and seven of them are endemic.

In this research, karyotypes of T. apulum, T. pestalozzae, T. syriacum, T. trachycarpum and karyotypes and chromosome

numbers of T. cappadocicum, T. aegaeum, T. hasselquistiae, T. ketenoglui (endemic), T. macropetalum (endemic), T. pustulosum

(endemic) are provided for the first time. Tordylium species are separated into five cytotypes according to chromosome

numbers as 2n=8, 16, 18, 20 and 22. Besides, idiograms of haploid chromosome set, length of the chromosome arms, arm

ratios, centromeric index, relative length and haploid karyotype formulas are given. T. ketenoglui has longest chromosome

lengths (3.39-1.66 μm) while T. aegaeum has shortest (1.10-0.59 μm). Additionally, principal component analysis (PCA) has

been performed by quantified karyological characters. PCA results show that the median type and haploid chromosome

length have significant variants among karyological characters. Also, correlation among karyological data, current infrageneric

classification and the phylogenetic hypothesis based morphological dataset of Tordylium are discussed. Karyological

characters are incompatible with current infrageneric classification, similarly with conflict between the phylogenetic hypothesis

and infrageneric classification. In the light of the phylogeny, it could be stated that the ancestral number is 2n=16.

Key Words: Cytotype, karyotype evolution, principal component analysis, Tordyliinae.