Antidepressants are drugs commonly used in clinical settings. However, there are very limited studies on the effects of these drugs on the gut microbiota. Herein, we evaluated the effect of reboxetine (RBX), a selective norepinephrine (noradrenaline) reuptake inhibitor (NRI), on gut microbiota in both diabetic and non-diabetic rats. This is the first report of relation between reboxetine use and the gut microbiota to our knowledge. In this study, type-1 diabetes induced by using streptozotocin (STZ) and RBX was administered to diabetic rats and healthy controls for 14 days. At the end of the treatment, stool samples were collected. Following DNA extraction, amplicon libraries for the V3-V4 region were prepared and sequenced with the Illumina Miseq platform. QIIME was used for preprocessing and analysis of the data. As a result, RBX had a significant effect on gut microbiota structure and composition in diabetic and healthy rats. For example, RBX exposure had a pronounced microbial signature in both groups, with a low Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio and low Lactobacillus levels. While another abundance phylum after exposure to RBX was Proteabacteria, other notable taxa in the diabetic group included Flavobacterium, Desulfovibrionaceae, Helicobacteriaceae, Campylobacterales, and Pasteurellacae when compared to the untreated group.