Ternary non-covalent interactions between carbon nanofibers (CNFs), oxidized carbon nanofibers (ox-CNFs), poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) chains, and benzotriazole-containing UV stabilizers were analyzed using Fourier-transform infra red spectroscopy (FTIR), time-resolved fluorescence emission spectroscopy, and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy. The results indicated that PMMA chains form hydrogen bonds both with ox-CNF fibers and the UV stabilizer molecules. It was also determined that UV stabilizers strongly interact with CNF particles via pi-pi interactions. The extent of pi-pi and hydrogen bonding interactions was determined to be lower between ox-CNF particles and UV stabilizers due to less perfect graphitic structure of the former. The morphology of the composites indicated that the hydrogen bonds between PMMA chains and ox-CNF particles resulted in highly improved state of filler dispersion in ox-CNF/PMMA composites. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.