Poly-L-lysine (PLL), polystyrenesulfonate (PSS), and a mixture of these polyelectrolytes were investigated by electrospray ionization ion mobility mass spectrometry. The IM step confirmed the formation of noncovalent (i.e., supramolecular) complexes between these polyelectrolytes, which were detected in various charge states and stoichiometries in the presence of their constituents. Experimental and theoretical collision cross sections (CCSs) were derived for both PLL and PSS oligomers as well as their noncovalent assemblies. PSS chains showed higher compactness with increasing size as compared to PLL chains, indicating that the intrinsic conformations of the polyelectrolytes depend on the nature of the functional groups on their side chains. The CCS data for the noncovalent complexes further revealed that assemblies with higher PLL content have higher CCS values than other compositions of similar mass and that PLL PSS complex formation is accompanied by significant size contraction.