Optogenetic cortical spreading depolarization induces headache-related behaviour and neuroinflammatory responses some prolonged in familial hemiplegic migraine type 1 mice

Dehghani A., Schenke M., van Heiningen S. H., Karatas H., Tolner E. A., van den Maagdenberg A. M. J. M.

Journal of Headache and Pain, vol.24, no.1, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 24 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1186/s10194-023-01628-8
  • Journal Name: Journal of Headache and Pain
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, CINAHL, MEDLINE, Psycinfo, Directory of Open Access Journals
  • Keywords: Cortical spreading depolarization, Headache behaviour, HMGB1, Neuroinflammation; pannexin-1, Optogenetics
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes


Background: Cortical spreading depolarization (CSD), the neurophysiological correlate of the migraine aura, can activate trigeminal pain pathways, but the neurobiological mechanisms and behavioural consequences remain unclear. Here we investigated effects of optogenetically-induced CSDs on headache-related behaviour and neuroinflammatory responses in transgenic mice carrying a familial hemiplegic migraine type 1 (FHM1) mutation. Methods: CSD events (3 in total) were evoked in a minimally invasive manner by optogenetic stimulation through the intact skull in freely behaving wildtype (WT) and FHM1 mutant mice. Related behaviours were analysed using mouse grimace scale (MGS) scoring, head grooming, and nest building behaviour. Neuroinflammatory changes were investigated by assessing HMGB1 release with immunohistochemistry and by pre-treating mice with a selective Pannexin-1 channel inhibitor. Results: In both WT and FHM1 mutant mice, CSDs induced headache-related behaviour, as evidenced by increased MGS scores and the occurrence of oculotemporal strokes, at 30 min. Mice of both genotypes also showed decreased nest building behaviour after CSD. Whereas in WT mice MGS scores had normalized at 24 h after CSD, in FHM1 mutant mice scores were normalized only at 48 h. Of note, oculotemporal stroke behaviour already normalized 5 h after CSD, whereas nest building behaviour remained impaired at 72 h; no genotype differences were observed for either readout. Nuclear HMGB1 release in the cortex of FHM1 mutant mice, at 30 min after CSD, was increased bilaterally in both WT and FHM1 mutant mice, albeit that contralateral release was more pronounced in the mutant mice. Only in FHM1 mutant mice, contralateral release remained higher at 24 h after CSD, but at 48 h had returned to abnormal, elevated, baseline values, when compared to WT mice. Blocking Panx1 channels by TAT-Panx308 inhibited CSD-induced headache related behaviour and HMGB1 release. Conclusions: CSDs, induced in a minimally invasive manner by optogenetics, investigated in freely behaving mice, cause various migraine relevant behavioural and neuroinflammatory phenotypes that are more pronounced and longer-lasting in FHM1 mutant compared to WT mice. Prevention of CSD-related neuroinflammatory changes may have therapeutic potential in the treatment of migraine.