Daily Sodium Intake in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients during Nephrology Clinic Follow-Up: An Observational Study with 24-Hour Urine Sodium Measurement

Kutlugun A. A. , ARICI M. , YILDIRIM T. , Turgut D., Yilmaz R., Altindal M., ...More

NEPHRON CLINICAL PRACTICE, vol.118, no.4, 2011 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 118 Issue: 4
  • Publication Date: 2011
  • Doi Number: 10.1159/000323392


Objective: To determine daily sodium intake in 'real practice' in a large group of chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients who were under regular follow-up in a nephrology clinic. Methods: A total of 373 consecutive outpatients with CKD stages 1-5 (not on dialysis; men: 52.3%, mean age: 51.6 +/- 15.4 years) were included in the study. All patients had at least 3 or more nephrology visits and received information on reducing their sodium intake. Data for systolic and diastolic blood pressure, number of antihypertensive medications and 2 consecutive 24-hour urinary sodium levels were obtained from the patients' medical records. Results: The mean 24-hour urinary sodium levels of 2 consecutive urine samples were 168.8 +/- 70.3 and 169.3 +/- 67.4 mEq/day (p > 0.05). Only 14.7% of the patients had a sodium excretion <100 mmol/day. There was no difference in daily sodium intake from stages 1 to 4, but it was significantly lower in stage 5 (126.6 +/- 60.5 mEq/day, p < 0.05). No relation was found between 24-hour urinary sodium output, number of antihypertensives or thiazide use. Conclusions: This study showed that almost 85% of CKD patients under regular nephrologic care were consuming more sodium than the recommended level. More robust measures should be devised to increase patient and physician compliance with reducing sodium intake in CKD. Copyright (C) 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel