Electrical conductivity is an important indicator for water quality assessment. Since the composition of mineral salts affects the electrical conductivity of groundwater, it is important to understand the relationships between mineral salt composition and electrical conductivity. In this present paper, we develop an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) model for groundwater electrical conductivity based on the concentration of positively charged ions in water. It is shown that the ANFIS model outperforms more traditional methods of modelling electrical conductivity based on the total solids dissolved in the water, even though ANFIS uses less information. Additionally, the fuzzy rules in the ANFIS model provide a categorization of ground water samples in a manner that is consistent with the current understanding of geophysical processes. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.