The effect of different socio-economic and working conditions on body size and proportions: A case study on adults from Samsun, Turkey


SÖNMEZ G., ERDAL Y. S.

JOURNAL OF BIOSOCIAL SCIENCE, 2022 (SSCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1017/s0021932022000232
  • Journal Name: JOURNAL OF BIOSOCIAL SCIENCE
  • Journal Indexes: Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, International Bibliography of Social Sciences, Periodicals Index Online, Anthropological Literature, BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, CINAHL, EMBASE, Gender Studies Database, Index Islamicus, MEDLINE, Psycinfo, Social services abstracts, Sociological abstracts, Veterinary Science Database
  • Keywords: Socio-economic differences, heavy working conditions, body sizes, body proportions, sex differences, RELATIVE LEG LENGTH, SECULAR CHANGES, SITTING HEIGHT, TRUNK LENGTH, SEX-DIFFERENCES, SOCIAL-CLASS, CHILD LABOR, POSTCRANIAL ROBUSTICITY, GROWTH TRAJECTORIES, NUTRITIONAL-STATUS
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes

Abstract

Conditions in the early stages of life shape body size and proportions. This study includes individuals who came from different socio-economic conditions and worked in physically demanding jobs in childhood. By determining the body sizes of these individuals and evaluating the proportional relationships between several groups, the goal was to understand the effect levels of socio-economic levels and working conditions on the body. For this purpose, an anthropometric study was conducted on 623 males and females between the ages of 20 and 45 living in Samsun, Turkey. The study sample consisted of four different groups. It was divided into two main groups of high and low socio-economic level, and the low socio-economic group was divided into two subgroups of heavy-worker and nonheavy-worker. The results demonstrated that socio-economic differences in the size and proportions of the individuals were statistically significant (p<0.05). The high socio-economic group had the highest values in all measures. External factors affected the lower limbs more than the upper limbs. The measurement most affected by these factors was leg length. Longer legs characterized the high socio-economic group, while longer arms characterized both low socio-economic groups. The relative differences observed can be said to derive from the distal limbs. This finding was valid for both sexes. The average values were close to each other in the low socio-economic group, for which the aim was to comprehend the effects of heavy working conditions. However, differences in proportional relationships were more significant. In this context, it was seen that heavy labour also affected growth, in addition to the well-known factors encountered during the growth period, such as nutrition, health, and illness. The observed changes were more significant in males than in females. Thus, it can be said that males were more affected by physiological and physical conditions.