Biodegradation of Cibacron Blue 3GA by insolubilized laccase and identification of enzymatic byproduct using MALDI-ToF-MS: Toxicity assessment studies by Daphnia magna and Chlorella vulgaris


ECOTOXICOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY, vol.170, pp.453-460, 2019 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier


The presented paper describes a detailed study on the use of immobilized laccase for effective degradation of Cibacron Blue 3GA dye. The amount of laccase loading on the cyclic carbonate groups containing poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-vinylene carbonate), p(HEMA-co-VC), microbeads was 27.8 mg g(-1), and the retained immobilized enzyme activity was 73% compared to free enzyme. The toxicity of the dye and its byproducts were studied using Daphnia magna as test organism. The micro-algal growth inhibition was also studied using a green micro algae "Chlorella vulgaris". MALDI-ToF-MS was used to verify dye degradation byproducts. After 60 min of incubation period, Cibacron Blue 3GA (CB3GA) and its byproducts disappeared from the medium. After 60-min enzymatic treatment, the non-toxic nature of medium was confirmed by toxicity studies. On the other hand, the initial byproducts of the dye seemed to be more toxic than the later formed dye products. It should be noted that the information obtained from this study can be beneficial for understanding the initial degradation byproducts toxicities of the enzymatically treated dyes to provide information about environmental protection.