Associations between university students' online learning preferences, readiness, and satisfaction

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KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT & E-LEARNING-AN INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL, vol.14, no.2, pp.186-201, 2022 (ESCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 14 Issue: 2
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.34105/j.kmel.2022.14.011
  • Journal Indexes: Emerging Sources Citation Index (ESCI), Scopus, IBZ Online, Educational research abstracts (ERA), ERIC (Education Resources Information Center), Directory of Open Access Journals
  • Page Numbers: pp.186-201
  • Keywords: Student preferences, Online learning, University students, Readiness for online learning, Satisfaction, NONLINEAR CANONICAL CORRELATION, CHOICE
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes


The aim of this study was to examine the associations between the preferences, readiness, and satisfaction of freshman learners after taking online courses. The study group was comprised of Turkish students (892 females, 396 males) who attended their first-year classes at a public university. Participating students attended courses in different departments, but all took these courses for one year online. Data were analysed using optimal scaling analysis. Nonlinear canonical correlation analysis (OVERALS) was used as the variables examined were of different scale levels. According to our findings, learners who preferred face-to-face format were individuals with low levels of learner control, motivation, and satisfaction, and individuals who preferred the online format had high satisfaction levels. Individuals who preferred to take courses in a blended format had low or medium levels of self-directed learning, no previous online course experience, and a medium level of control.