Purpose The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between dysphagia severity and head and neck proprioception in patients with neurological diseases. Methods Twenty-six patients with neurological diseases who received the modified barium swallowing study (MBSS) were included. Dysphagia severity was assessed with the penetration aspiration scale (PAS). Patients were divided into two groups according to their PAS scores as "with dysphagia" (n = 15) and "without dysphagia" (n = 11). Active range of motion (AROM) and muscle strength were measured. Proprioception measurement of the cervical region was performed with a laser marker placed on the head of the patients, and the deviation from the middle target was noted in centimeters. Results There was no difference between groups in terms of gender, age, height, weight, diagnosis, AROM, and the muscle strength of the cervical region (p > 0.05). A moderate, positive correlation was found between dysphagia severity and the results of proprioception in terms of neck flexion, extension, and left rotation (r = 0.48, p = 0.01; r = 0.58, p = 0.002; r = 0.42, p = 0.02, respectively). There was a statistically significant difference in proprioception measurements of neck flexion, extension, and left rotation between groups (p < 0.05). Conclusion In conclusion, patients' decreased head and neck proprioception is related to severe dysphagia. Therefore, a holistic approach should be followed for swallowing function, and head and neck proprioception should be considered in dysphagia management.