The pollen morphology of 120 samples of the tribe Orobancheae, representing four genera and 40 species of Cistanche, Diphelypaea, Orobanche and Phelipanche native to Turkey, has been studied by light and scanning electron microscopy. Pollen of the tribe Orobancheae is typically isopolar, radially asymmetrical, oblate spheroidal or prolate and belongs to one of the following basic pollen types: inaperturate, tricolpate and syncolpate. Also, pollen heteromorphism is widespread among pest species of Orobanche and Phelipanche. Pollen characters display considerable variation among genera and species, but some characters are significant at the levels of genera and sections. The results of the SEM study show that there are various exine ornamentation types in these genera. The obtained results support the division of the traditionally circumscribed genus Orobanche sensu lato into two genera, Phelipanche and Orobanche. The pollen morphological features are discussed on the basis of molecular phylogeny of the taxa.