A synopsis of Acantholimon in Turkey is given on the basis of a revisional study conducted in Turkey by the authors. An account of 52 species, ten subspecies, and 17 varieties is given, including keys to the species, subspecies, and varieties, and a general indication of their distribution, as well as their conservation status in Turkey. Seven new taxa, namely A. ekimii sp. nov., A. capitatum ssp. sivasicum ssp. nov., A. calvertii var. glabrum var. nov., A. huetii var. breviscapum var. nov., A. acerosum ssp. longibracteolorum ssp. nov., A. lycaonicum ssp. cappadocicum ssp. nov., and A. halophilum var. coloratum var. nov., are described, together with a few new combinations. A. wiedemannii, A. iconicum, and A. lycaonicum, described from Turkey in the past, but placed under other species as synonyms in the Flora of Turkey, are recognized once again as good species. A. multiflorum and A. parviflorum are given a species status. In Turkey, the presence of A. latifolium, A. araxanum, A. lepturoides, A. hohenackerii, A. senganense, A. fominii, A. petraeum, and A. tragacanthinum is also confirmed. (c) 2007 The Linnean Society of London, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 2007, 154, 397-419.