Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a well-defined risk factor for ischemic stroke. Patients with lone AF represent a subgroup of AF patients with the lowest lifelong stroke risk. Nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) confers a hypercoagulable state resulting in an increased risk of thromboembolism. This study was performed to determine the contributory role of alteration in the hemostatic markers of thrombin generation and fibrinolysis in patients with lone AF during acute ischemic stroke episode. We studied thrombin-antithrombin complexes (TAT), prothrombin fragments 1+2 (F1+2), tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1) concentrations in patients with acute middle cerebral artery ischemic stroke due to atherosclerotic large artery disease (n=50), lone AF (n=24) and cardioembolism (n=21). The values were compared with those of age-matched control subjects with lone AF and sinus rhythm (n=21 and 15, respectively). The mean F1+2 concentration was higher in the control subjects with lone AF in comparison with those without AF (p=0.014). Patients with stroke due to possible cardioembolism, from lone AF or other causes, had higher TAT (and marginally higher F1+2) concentrations than those with atherosclerotic stroke (p<0.001), tPA concentrations were not different among groups (p=0.89). PAI-I levels were marginally high er in stroke patients with lone AF and atherothrombotic large artery disease compared to the controls without AF (p=0.05). These results suggest that in the acute period of ischemic stroke secondary to lone AF, enhancement of the coagulatory activity occurs as a result of increased thrombin generation, similar to other possible sources of cardioembolism. Observed hemostatic alterations in acute ischemic stroke associated with lone AF may indicate some therapeutic and prognostic implications.