A novel biocompatible copolymer membrane was synthesized and characterized for use in guided bone regeneration using polymeric soybean oil-g-polystyrene (PSO-g-PS) graft copolymer which was successfully obtained by free radical polymerization of styrene initiated by PSO peroxide as a macroinitiator at 80 A degrees C. Osteoblastic cellular activities of MC3T3-E1 cells on PSO-g-PS membranes with different soybean oil composition (PSO-g-PS1, PSO-g-PS2, and PSO-g-PS3) were evaluated. Nuclear magnetic resonance (H-1 NMR) spectra showed that PSO inclusion (mol%) was found to be 27, 69, and 51 % for PSO-g-PS1, PSO-g-PS2, and PSO-g-PS3 membranes, respectively. Superior biocompatibility of the PSO-g-PS membranes was determined compared to polystyrene tissue culture plates (TCPS) as positive control. Cell proliferation was enhanced on PSO-g-PS2 and PSO-g-PS3 membranes compared to PSO-g-PS1 membranes (p < 0.001), and a statistically significant higher ALP value of MC3T3-E1 cells on PSO-g-PS2 membranes (p < 0.05) suggested that proliferation and differentiation of preosteoblastic on PSO-g-PS membranes were enhanced with regard to soybean oil content within the membranes. Thus, the present study suggests that PSO-g-PS2 membranes, which showed a favorable biological environment for the preosteoblastic cells, can be well suited for bone tissue engineering applications.