Acute bacterial parotitis subsequent to major abdominal surgery is well documented, reportedly occurring in as many as 0.1% of patients. Postoperative parotitis has been reported between 1 to 15 weeks after surgery, commonly appearing within 2 weeks; of the procedure. However, postoperative parotitis has not been reported previously after neurosurgical procedures. The authors report five cases of postoperative parotitis after neurosurgical operations in the sitting position with mild flexion and rotation of the head. This group of patients accounted for 0.16% of all craniotomy and 1.9% of all sitting position neurosurgical procedures performed in the authors' institution from 1996 through 2001. Neck flexion and head tilt in the sitting position might have an influence on acute parotitis. The authors found that the side of the parotitis was on the opposite side of the head rotation. Dehydration therapy may also be a contributing factor. The objective of this paper is to state that parotitis is a possible complication in neurosurgical patients operated on in sitting position and to discuss its pathophysiology and treatment options.