Intraoperative Cerebral Hemodynamic Monitoring during Carotid Endarterectomy via Diffuse Correlation Spectroscopy and Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

Creative Commons License

Kaya K., Zavriyev A. I. , Orihuela-Espina F., Simon M. V. , Lamuraglia G. M. , Pierce E. T. , ...More

BRAIN SCIENCES, vol.12, no.8, pp.1025, 2022 (SCI-Expanded)

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 12 Issue: 8
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.3390/brainsci12081025
  • Journal Name: BRAIN SCIENCES
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, EMBASE, Directory of Open Access Journals
  • Page Numbers: pp.1025
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: No


Objective: This pilot study aims to show the feasibility of noninvasive and real-time cerebral hemodynamic monitoring during carotid endarterectomy (CEA) via diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Methods: Cerebral blood flow index (CBFi) was measured unilaterally in seven patients and bilaterally in seventeen patients via DCS. In fourteen patients, hemoglobin oxygenation changes were measured bilaterally and simultaneously via NIRS. Cerebral autoregulation (CAR) and cerebrovascular resistance (CVR) were estimated using CBFi and arterial blood pressure data. Further, compensatory responses to the ipsilateral hemisphere were investigated at different contralateral stenosis levels. Results: Clamping of carotid arteries caused a sharp increase of CVR (~70%) and a marked decrease of ipsilateral CBFi (57%). From the initial drop, we observed partial recovery in CBFi, an increase of blood volume, and a reduction in CVR in the ipsilateral hemisphere. There were no significant changes in compensatory responses between different contralateral stenosis levels as CAR was intact in both hemispheres throughout the CEA phase. A comparison between hemispheric CBFi showed lower ipsilateral levels during the CEA and post-CEA phases (p < 0.001, 0.03). Conclusion: DCS alone or combined with NIRS is a useful monitoring technique for real-time assessment of cerebral hemodynamic changes and allows individualized strategies to improve cerebral perfusion during CEA by identifying different hemodynamic metrics.