In vivo performance of simvastatin-loaded electrospun spiral-wound polycaprolactone scaffolds in reconstruction of cranial bone defects in the rat model

Piskin E., Isoglu I. A., Bolgen N., Vargel I., Griffiths S., Cavusoglu T., ...More

JOURNAL OF BIOMEDICAL MATERIALS RESEARCH PART A, no.4, pp.1137-1151, 2009 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier


Reconstruction of large bone defects is still a major problem. Tissue-engineering approaches have become a focus in regeneration of bone. In particular, critical-sized defects do not ossify spontaneously. The use of electrospinning is attracting increasing attention in the preparation of tissue-engineering scaffolds. Recently, acellular scaffolds carrying bioactive agents have been used as scaffolds in "in situ" tissue engineering for soft and hard tissue repair. Poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) with two different molecular weights were synthesized, and the blends of these two were electrospun into nonwoven membranes composed of nanofibers/micropores. To stimulate bone formation, an active drug, "simvastatin" was loaded either after the membranes were formed or during electrospinning. The matrices were then spiral-wound to produce scaffolds with 3D-structures having both macro- and microchannels. Eight-millimeter diameter critical size cranial defects were created in rats. Scaffolds with or without simvastatin were then implanted into these defects. Samples from the implant sites were removed after 1, 3, and 6 months postimplantation. Bone regeneration and tissue response were followed by X-ray microcomputed tomography and histological analysis. These in vivo results exhibited osseous tissue integration within the implant and mineralized bone restoration of the calvarium. Both microCT and histological data clearly demonstrated that the more successful results were observed with the "simvastatin-containing PCL scaffolds," in which simvastatin was incorporated into the PCL scaffolds during electrospinning. For these samples, bone mineralization was quite significant when compared with the other groups. (C) 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res 90A: 1137-1151, 2009