PLANTA MEDICA, vol.70, no.8, pp.711-717, 2004 (SCI-Expanded)
Anti-plasmodial activity-guided fractionation of Phlomis brunneogaleata (Lamiaceae) led to the isolation of two new metabolites, the iridoid glycoside, brunneogaleatoside and a new pyrrolidinium derivative (2S,4R)-2-carboxy-4-(E)-p-coumaroyloxy-1,1-dimethylpyrrolidinium inner salt [(2S,4R)-1,1 -dimethyl-4-(E)-p-coumaroyloxyproline inner salt]. Moreover, a known iridoid glycoside, ipolamiide, six known phenylethanoid glycosides, verbascoside, isoverbascoside, forsythoside B, echinacoside, glucopyranosyl-(1 -->G(i)-6)-martynoside and integrifolioside 13, two flavone glycosides, luteolin 7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (10) and chrysoeriol 7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (11), a lignan glycoside liriodendrin, an acetophenone glycoside 4-hydroxyacetophenone 4-O-(6'-O-beta-D-apiofuranosyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside and three caffeic acid esters, chlorogenic acid, 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid methyl ester and 5-O-caffeoylshikimic acid were isolated. The structures of the pure compounds were elucidated by means of spectroscopic methods (UV, IR, MS, 1D and 2D NMR, [alpha](D)) and X-ray crystallography. Compounds 10 and 11 were determined to be the major anti-malarial principles of the crude extract (IC50 values of 2.4 and 5.9 mug/mL, respectively). They also exhibited significant leishmanicidal activity (IC50 = 1.1 and 4.1 mug/mL, respectively). The inhibitory potential of the pure metabolites against plasmodial enoyl-ACP reductase (FabI), which is the key regulator of type 11 fatty acid synthases (FAS-II) in A falciparum, was also assessed. Compound 10 showed promising FabI inhibiting effect (IC50 = 10 mug/mL) and appears to be the first anti-malarial natural product targeting FabI of P. falciparum.