Purpose To investigate the occupational and environmental factors in the etiology of infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (IHPS). Methods Protocol was drafted according to the PRISMA guidelines and registered on PROSPERO (CRD42020152460). A search for a combination of terms related to IHPS, fetus and neonates, and environmental exposure was performed for studies published between 2000 and 2020 in the EMBASE, Pubmed, and MEDLINE databases. Results Overall, 2203 abstracts were identified and 829 were screened. The full text of the selected articles (N = 98) was assessed for eligibility. Fifteen studies were included in quantitative synthesis. IHPS risk was significantly lower in black and Hispanic mothers than in white mothers [OR 0.47 (95% CI 0.44-0.51, p < 0.001), OR 0.85 (95% CI 0.77-0.94, p = 0.002), respectively]. Lower maternal education level and maternal smoking were risk factor for IHPS. We further observed a non-significant association between maternal folic acid usage and IHPS risk. Data were insufficient to evaluate occupational exposure. Conclusion This review provides an understanding of the role of environmental exposures in IHPS etiology. Lower maternal educational level, maternal smoking, and white ethnicity are associated with a significantly increased risk of IHPS, while folic acid use seems non-significantly associated with IHPS risk.