Asbestos is a mineral with unique physical and chemical properties that make it highly resistant to heat, fire, and corrosion. Nevertheless, exposure to asbestos fibers has been linked to serious health problems, including lung cancer, mesothelioma, and asbestosis. Despite the ban on asbestos usage, asbestos-related diseases are still a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Analyzing the mineralogical features and fiber analysis of asbestos in biological materials is critical for scenarios where an asbestos exposure history cannot be obtained, a clinical diagnosis cannot be made, or legal aspects necessitate further investigation. This review outlines the mineralogical features and fiber analysis techniques of asbestos in biological materials.