This study examines the learning strategies, learning techniques and cognitive structures of university biology students as well as the learning strategies coming to the forefront in formation of the cognitive structure in the case of Protein and Cystic fibrosis. A qualitative research method is used in this study. Problem-centered interview and think-aloud process and concept map were used as data collection techniques. The study group consists of 32 biology students in the first stage and 5 persons chosen out of these students in the second stage. As a conclusion, study group was divided into types using advanced strategies, medium strategies and weak strategies according to cognitive learning strategies. It is observed that there is a strong interaction between types' usage of learning strategies and the cognitive structure.