in: Plasmonic Sensors and their Applications, Adil Denizli, Editor, John Wiley & Sons, West Sussex, UK , Berlin, pp.71-85, 2021
Biological and chemical warfare agents induce illness and/or death not only for human beings but also for animals and plants. Biological threat agents are classified as viruses, toxins, bacteria, or other agents. Heavy metal ions, explosive compounds, radioactive and organophosphorus compounds are used in chemical threat agents. The threat posed by biological and chemical warfare agents, the restrictions of methods to identify them supports the requirement for the continued design of sensing platforms. Sensors are detection tools that have significant properties including rapid, sensitive, selective, and portable. Moreover, simplicity is very important in determining a target analyte and there is a huge need for novel sensing methods development with smart abilities in homeland security and defense applications for biological and chemical warfare agent detection. In this chapter, we overview the biological and chemical warfare agents and highlight the wide and recent applications of plasmonic sensors for biological and chemical warfare agents.