The NLRP3 inflammasome holds a crucial role in innate immune responses. Pathogen- and danger-associated molecular patterns may initiate inflammasome activation and following inflammatory cytokine release. The inflammasome formation and its-associated activity are involved in various pathological conditions such as cardiovascular, central nervous system, metabolic, renal, inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Although the mechanism behind NLRP3-mediated disorders have not been entirely illuminated, many phytochemicals and medicinal plants have been described to prevent inflammatory disorders. In the present review, we mainly introduced phytochemicals inhibiting NLRP3 inflammasome in addition to NLRP3-mediated diseases. For this purpose, we performed a systematic literature search by screening PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar databases. By compiling the data of phytochemical inhibitors targeting NLRP3 inflammasome activation, a complex balance between inflammasome activation or inhibition with NLRP3 as central player was pointed out in NLRP3-driven pathological conditions. Phytochemicals represent potential therapeutic leads, enabling the generation of chemical derivatives with improved pharmacological features to treat NLRP3-mediated inflammatory diseases.