Evidence indicates that proteins controlling bone mineralization are also involved in the regulation of coronary calcification. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the association between plasma osteopontin (OPN) levels and coronary calcification quantified by using tomographic coronary calcium scoring. Plasma OPN levels were measured from samples of 80 intermediate-risk asymptomatic patients (56 +/- A 10 years) who underwent tomographic coronary calcium scoring via multislice computed tomography for incremental risk stratification. There was no significant difference regarding OPN levels between patients with and without coronary calcification in the whole study population. Of 49 patients not receiving renin-angiotensin system inhibitors and/or statins, plasma OPN levels of patients with coronary calcification (38.7%) were significantly higher than those without coronary calcification (61.3%) (8.88 +/- A 2.85 vs. 6.79 +/- A 2.41, P = 0.008, respectively). On a binary logistic regression model, only age and plasma OPN level were found to be significant independent associated variables for the presence of coronary calcification in patients not receiving these medications (odds ratio for age, 1.15, P = 0.017; for plasma OPN levels, 1.63, P = 0.014). Our results indicate that plasma OPN levels may be predictive of coronary calcification, suggesting an important role of OPN in the atherosclerotic calcification pathogenesis.