© 2021 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.Aim and objectives: The study's purpose was to examine the association between rumination, fatigue and psychological resilience among cancer survivors. Background: Cancer is a disease that causes difficult lives in individuals. Individuals can struggle with cancer-related fatigue (CRF) and ruminative thoughts during and after the disease process. However, it can also be seen that some individuals make sense out of their cancer experience and turn into stronger individuals. Design: A cross-sectional design. Methods: This study was conducted from February through November 2020. Data were collected from 159 cancer survivors using Event Related Rumination Inventory, Cancer Fatigue Scale and Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale. Results: The findings showed that intrusive rumination significantly and negatively mediated psychological resilience but significantly and positively mediated with CRF. In contrast, deliberate rumination was significantly and positively mediated psychological resilience but significantly and negatively mediated with CRF. The effects of intrusive and deliberate rumination on fatigue were.431 (CI =0.042–0.635) and −.285 (CI = −0.163 to 0.491), respectively. In addition, the effects of intrusive and deliberate rumination on psychological resilience were −.253 (CI = −0.177 to 0.447) and.304 (CI = 0.045–0.124), respectively. Conclusions: The findings underline the mediating role of rumination on CRF and psychological resilience among cancer survivors. The findings also delineate the associations between rumination, CRF and psychological resilience, which differ based on rumination type. Relevance to clinical practice: The findings are particularly important to oncology nurses, who are the main sources of psychosocial care. To support cancer survivors and mobilise their resources, oncology nurses should be made aware of the different types and effects of rumination. With the help of this awareness, oncology nurses can enhance managing intrusive rumination, replacing intrusive ruminations with deliberate ones, mobilising resources and promoting psychological resilience.