Telerehabilitation versus virtual reality supported task-oriented circuit therapy on upper limbs and trunk functions in patients with multiple sclerosis: A randomized controlled study


Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders, vol.71, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 71
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.msard.2023.104558
  • Journal Name: Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, EMBASE, MEDLINE
  • Keywords: Telerehabilitation, Mobile app, Kinematics, inertial sensors, virtual reality, Task oriented circuit training, serious gaming
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes


Introduction: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of two different technology-supported rehabilitation approaches which are mobile application based telerehabilitation (TR) and virtual reality supported task oriented circuit therapy groups (V-TOCT) on the upper limb (UL), trunk function, and functional activity kinematics in patients with Multiple Sclerosis (PwMS). Methods: Thirty-four patients with PwMS were included in this study. The participants were evaluated at baseline and after eight weeks of treatment by an experienced physiotherapist using the Trunk Impairment Scale (TIS), kinetic function sub-parameter of the International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale (K-ICARS), ABILHAND, Minnesota Manual Dexterity tests (MMDT), and trunk and UL kinematics using inertial sensors. The participants were randomized into the TR and V-TOCT groups with a 1:1 allocation ratio. All participants received interventions for 1 hour per session, 3 sessions per week, for 8 weeks. Results: Trunk impairment, ataxia severity, UL, and hand function showed statistically significant improvement in both groups. The functional range of motion (FRoM) of shoulder and wrist increased transversal plane and the FRoM of shoulder increased on sagittal plane in V-TOCT. Log Dimensionless Jerk (LDJ) decreased on transversal plane in V-TOCT group. The FRoM of the trunk joints increased on the coronal plane and the FRoM of the trunk joints increased on the transversal plane in TR. Dynamic balance of the trunk and K-ICARS improved better in V-TOCT than in TR (p < 0,05). Conclusions: V-TOCT and TR improved UL function, TIS, and ataxia severity in PwMS. The V-TOCT was more effective than the TR in terms of dynamic trunk control and kinetic function. The clinical results were confirmed using the kinematic metrics of motor control.