Purpose/aim This study aimed to evaluate the sensory processing abilities of young adults with a history of preterm birth and the factors affecting these abilities. Materials and methods Thirty-seven young adults with preterm birth history were included. After recording their sociodemographic data, sensory processing functions were evaluated using the Adolescent/Adult Sensory Profile. The participants' data were compared to normative samples. Results Mean score was 43.51 +/- 8.29 for sensory sensitivity, 44.45 +/- 9.19 for sensation avoiding, 33.43 +/- 8.45 for low registration, and 47.97 +/- 9.91 for sensation seeking. Compared to normative samples, 78% of participants in sensation avoiding quadrant, 62% of participants in sensory sensitivity quadrant, 40% of participants in low registration quadrant and sensation seeking quadrant had atypical scores. When sensory profile scores were analysed according to mode of birth, percentages of typical sensory sensitivity and sensation avoiding were low in both the normal vaginal and caesarean delivery subgroups. When analysed by gestational age at birth, ratios of abnormality in sensation avoiding were similar between individuals with very early, early, and late preterm delivery history. Statistically significant difference was found in low registration and sensation avoiding quadrants according to mode of birth (p < .05). There were no statistically significant sex-based and gestational age at birth differences in any of the four quadrants of the sensory profile in the preterm group (p > .05). Conclusion These results showed that young adults with preterm birth history have differences in sensory processing compared to the general population and should be evaluated for sensory processing patterns.