The responses of Anatolian plants to global climate change have been poorly investigated. In this study, we aimed to understand how climatic oscillation during the Quaternary period helped to shape the current distribution patterns of the Anatolian endemic Noccaea iberidea, a typical representative of tragacanthic (thorny cushion) steppe communities of Anatolia. We used ecological niche modelling combined with statistical phylogeography, based on nuclear ribosomal ITS and plastidic trnL-F and trnS-ycf9 regions. Both the structure of the haplotype networks and the results of the extended Bayesian skyline plot analysis clearly indicated that N. iberidea has been through a recent population expansion. This interpretation was also supported by ecological niche modelling analysis, which showed that the availability of areas of high suitability expanded from the Last Interglacial to the Last Glacial Maximum, suggesting that N. iberidea might have expanded its range during the glacial periods. In conclusion, the study improves our understanding of the demographic history and responses of steppe plant communities of Anatolia to global climate changes through the Late Quaternary glacial-interglacial cycles, which in turn might aid in the development of future conservation strategies.