The goal of this study was to assess the impact of peer education and single-session educational lectures on HIV/AIDS knowledge and attitude change among university students (n = 157 male, n = 230 female; mean age = 20) on the campuses of two metropolitan state universities in Ankara, Turkey. The students were randomly selected to participate in peer education (n = 204), single-session lecture (n = 74) or wait-list control (n = 109) groups. Statistical analyses reveal significant differences in knowledge and attitudes, personal behavior, and awareness of HIV/AIDS. Both the peer education and HfV/AIDS lecture strategies were more effective in eliciting change in student's knowledge and attitudes than the control condition (P >.05). Male and female students in both experimental groups showed higher attitude scores compared with all students in the control group.