Celiac disease ( CD) is a disease having the characteristic pathology of the mucosa of the small intestine. The prevalence of CD in the Turkish population has not been investigated previously. The present study was designed to determine the prevalence of CD in healthy blood donors. Serum samples of 2000 healthy blood donors presenting to Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine Hospital Blood Bank were tested for tissue transglutaminase (tTG) IgA and IgG antibodies with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ( ELISA; Euroimmune, Germany). The histopathological findings for the cases with positive serology were evaluated. The distribution of sex was 95.7% male, and 4.3% female. The mean age was 33 +/- 9. Among 2000 donors, 23 (1.15%) were positive for tTG IgA antibody and 3 (0.15%) were positive for tTG IgG antibody. None of the samples was positive for both antibodies. Serum total IgA was measured in two cases with only tTG IgG positivity and was found to be low in one case. Twelve subjects positive for tTG agreed to endoscopy and biopsy. Histopathological examination revealed changes classified as Marsh III - II in one, Marsh II in two, Marsh I in seven, and Marsh 0 in two donors. This was the first study conducted to determine the prevalence of tTG positivity in the Turkish population. The tTG antibody positivity prevalence in healthy blood donors was as high as 1.3%. This study shows that the prevalence of CD in the Turkish population is relatively high in comparison to that in the Western world.