Objective: Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and atherosclerosis are frequently observed in uremic patients and they have appeared as an independent predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of ramipril and amlodipine on left ventricular mass index (LVMI) and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) in nondiabetic hypertensive hemodialysis patients. Methods: A total of 112 hemodialysis (HD) patients were included in this study. Patients were randomly allocated to receive ramipril or amlodipine for 1 year. Blood pressure (BP) measurements, LVMI, and CIMT were assessed at baseline and 6-month intervals. Biochemical parameters and inflammatory markers were also determined at the initiation and during the study period. Results: Similar BP decrease was observed in treatment groups. During follow-up, LVMI and CIMT progressed likewise in both treatment groups despite BP control. However, subgrouping analyses due to the pattern of left ventricular geometry showed that LVMI in patients with eccentric LVH increased, whereas LVMI decreased in subjects with concentric LVH under antihypertensive treatment. Discussion: BP control with ramipril or amlodipine could not provide adequate protection for development or progression of atherosclerosis and eccentric type of LVH in nondiabetic HD patients.