The purpose of this study was to evaluate the dentin bond strength to resin composite following erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er:YAG) laser preparation using different adhesive systems. Seventy dentin specimens prepared from human molar teeth were randomly assigned to seven groups of ten. The first five groups were prepared with an Er:YAG laser 2940 nm at the manufacturer's recommended settings and (1) acid etched, and etch-and-rinse adhesive Excite was applied; (2) Excite was applied; (3) two-step self-etching adhesive AdheSE was applied; (4) laser etched (120 mJ/10 Hz), and Excite was applied; (5) laser etched, and AdheSE was applied. The last two groups were added as controls (prepared with a diamond bur): (6) acid etched, and Excite was applied; (7) AdheSE was applied. Nanohybrid composite cylinders 4 mm x 2 mm were bonded to the dentin surfaces. After the specimens had been stored in distilled water and had undergone thermocycling, the shear bond strength was tested and the data were analyzed statistically. The Duncan multiple comparison test showed that specimens prepared with a diamond bur and with acid and Excite applied showed the highest mean bond strength (13.01 +/- 2.09 MPa), followed by those prepared with Er:YAG and with AdheSE applied (11.5 +/- 3.59 MPa) and those prepared with a diamond bur and with AdheSE applied (10.75 +/- 1.95 MPa), but there were no significant differences among them (P > 0.05). Er:YAG-prepared specimens, with acid, Excite (3.28 +/- 0.95 MPa) and specimens that were laser etched and with AdheSE applied (3.37 +/- 0.63 MPa) showed the lowest mean values for bond strength (P < 0.05). The results suggested that dentin surfaces prepared with Er:YAG laser may provide comparable composite resin bond strengths depending on the adhesives used.