Objective: The human skin is one of the major organs in continuous interaction with environmental factors. The effects of frostbite on the skin have been extensively studied and many drugs for its treatment have been tested over the years. The effects of melatonin in the treatment of tissue injuries have also been investigated. The present study was performed to examine the effects of melatonin on frostbite of the skin. Material and Methods: This study was performed in 2006 in the Anatomy Department of Hacettepe University, Faculty of Medicine. Ears of five rabbits were used in each group and specimens were taken by punch biopsy. Groups were allocated as follows: Control group: rabbit ears with no induced injury or treatment; Trauma group: rabbit ears subjected to cold injury; Treatment group: rabbit ears treated with melatonin after cold injury; and Sham group: rabbit ears treated with 0.9% NaCl after cold injury. Specimens were evaluated by transmission electron microscope and were scored statistically. Results: In the trauma group, the cells of the stratum corneum layer of the epidermis had separated. Intro-cytoplasmic edema and vacuoles in these cells were visible. Although there was loss of chromatin and evident edema in the nucleus of some of these cells, there was no clear defect in the distribution of the nuclear chromatin in general. Separation between the cells of the stratum corneum of the melatonin group was absent. The cells were normal, collagen fibers were regular and the fibroblasts were inactive. Conclusion: The results obtained in this rabbit model are significant for suggesting the favorable effects of melatonin on cold injury.